Any prospect of a lasting peace treaty has to be tempered by the knowledge that this form of agreement goes back to 1283BC and the Egyptian-Hittite Peace Treaty
or to the border agreement between the rulers of the city-states of Lagash
Four thousand years of war would give anyone pause as to the efficacy of international agreements if peace accords are anything to go by, though one must allow for a number of border changes to occur over that time, significantly altering the landscape and affecting allegiances.
Trade has taken place for most of our recorded history. Obsidian
was bartered in the Stone Age.
Long distance commerce
has been taking place for 150,000 years
The exchange of currency for favours
is rooted deep in our past and slaves
have been kept in the earliest records circa 1760BC
Slavery has been outlawed completely but human trafficking continues.
Homo erectus migrated across the Levantine Corridor
and Horn of Africa
about 1.8 million years ago
, settling in Eurasia
. Ancestors evolved into modern humans 200,000 years ago
in Africa. 125,000 years ago
, Homo sapiens sapiens reached the Near East
from where they spread through Asia
were fleeing persecution and danger 3,500 years ago
, during the flourishing of the great empires.
The Ancient Egyptians performed diagnosis
and medical examination
. The Ancient Greeks added medical ethics
with the Hippocratic Oath
dating to 5th Century BCE.
The odd epidemic
was enough to encourage cooperation in disease control.
growth and use dates to 3,400 years ago
when the opium poppy was cultivated in lower Mesopotamia
The earliest law we have evidence for is The Code of Lipit-Ishtar
(dated to 1860BC
) The law courts of Athens drove society in the 4th and 5th century BC
True justice, while evolving from earlier legal systems, did not arrive until the 1200s
: trial by jury
, the right to face one's accuser
, and swearing an oath
were introduced as norms.
is more difficult to establish since the further back one goes, the more simple and mechanistic is the assistance. Do we measure the engagement of the intellect by the standards of the day?